Residential heating contribution to level of air pollutants (PAHs, major, trace, and rare earth elements): a moss bag case study
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AuthorsVuković, Gordana P.
Pergal, Miodrag M.
Popović, Aleksandar R.
Article (Published version)
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In areas with moderate to continental climates, emissions from residential heating system lead to the winter air pollution peaks. The EU legislation requires only the monitoring of airborne concentrations of particulate matter, As, Cd, Hg, Ni, and B[a]P. Transition metals and rare earth elements (REEs) have also arisen questions about their detrimental health effects. In that sense, this study examined the level of extensive set of air pollutants: 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and 41 major elements, trace elements, and REEs using Sphagnum girgensohnii moss bag technique. During the winter of 2013/2014, the moss bags were exposed across Belgrade (Serbia) to study the influence of residential heating system to the overall air quality. The study was set as an extension to our previous survey during the summer, i.e., non-heating season. Markedly higher concentrations of all PAHs, Sb, Cu, V, Ni, and Zn were observed in the exposed moss in comparison to the initial values. The ...patterns of the moss REE concentrations normalized to North American Shale Composite and Post-Archean Australian Shales were identical across the study area but enhanced by anthropogenic activities. The results clearly demonstrate the seasonal variations in the moss enrichment of the air pollutants. Moreover, the results point out a need for monitoring of air quality during the whole year, and also of various pollutants, not only those regulated by the EU Directive.
Keywords:Urban environment / Heating season / Seasonal pollutant variations / Active biomonitoring / Moss bag technique / S. girgensohnii
Source:Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 2015, 22, 23, 18956-18966
- Springer Heidelberg, Heidelberg
- Studying climate change and its influence on environment: impacts, adaptation and mitigation (RS-43007)
- Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia