A direct and sensitive electrochemical sensing platform based on ionic liquid functionalized graphene nanoplatelets for the detection of bisphenol A
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A simple electrochemical sensor for bisphenol A (BPA) was developed based on a composite of graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) and 1-butyl-2, 3-dimethylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (ionic liquid, IL) as a modifier for glassy carbon paste electrodes (GCPEs). Scanning electron (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were employed to characterize the morphology and surface modification. The electrochemical behavior of BPA on IL-GNP/GCPEs was investigated and the results showed that IL-GNP composites enhance the electrochemical signal toward BPA due to the synergetic effect of GNPs and IL. The experimental parameters including the amount of IL and GNPs, pH of solution, pulse potential, step potential, and scan rate were optimized. Under optimal conditions, the proposed sensor exhibited a linear relationship between signal and BPA concentrations ranging from 0.02–5.0 μM, with detection and quantification limits of 6.4 nM and 0.02 μM respectively. Moreover, the electrochemical sensor showed good... repeatability (RSD = 3.3%, n = 5 measurements), good reproducibility (RSD = 3.8%, n = 5 sensors), high accuracy of 95.3–104.5% recovery, acceptable selectivity, and stability. The sensor was successfully applied to the determination of BPA in water samples in contact with plastic materials. The results were satisfactory and in agreement with reference values from a standard HPLC method.