Metal ligand aromatic cation-pi interactions in metalloproteins: Ligands coordinated to metal interact with aromatic residues
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Cation-se interactions between aromatic residues and cationic amino groups in side chains and have been recognized as noncovalent bonding interactions relevant for molecular recognition and for stabilization and definition of the native structure of proteins. We propose a novel type of cation-x interaction in metalloproteins; namely interaction between ligands coordinated to a metal cation-which gain positive charge from the metal-and aromatic groups in amino acid side chains. Investigation of crystal structures of metalloproteins in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) has revealed that there exist quite a number of metalloproteins in which aromatic rings of phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan are situated close to a metal center interacting with coordinated ligands. Among these ligands are amino acids such as asparagine, aspartate, glutamate, histidine, and threonine, but also water and substrates like ethanol. These interactions play a role in the stability and conformation of metallopro...teins, and in some cases may also be directly involved in the mechanism of enzymatic reactions, which occur at the metal center. For the enzyme superoxide dismutase, we used quantum chemical computation to calculate that Trp163 has an interaction energy of 10.09 kcal mol(-1) with the ligands coordinated to iron.
Keywords:amino acids / density functional calculations / metal complexes / metalloproteins / pi interactions
Source:Chemistry. A European Journal, 2000, 6, 21, 3935-3942
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