Speciations of trace metals in the Danube alluvial sediments within an oil refinery
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A sequential extraction procedure was applied to identify forms of Ni, Zn, Ph and Cu with Fe- and Mn-oxides associated in alluvial sediments of the River Danube within Pancevo Oil Refinery (Serbia). The five steps of the sequential extraction procedure partitioned metals into: CH3COONH4 extractable (S1); NH2OH-HCl carbonate extractable and easily reducible (S2); (NH4)(2)C2O2/H2C2O2 moderately reducible (S3); H2O2-HNO3 organic extractable (S4); and HCl acid soluble residue (S5). Extracted concentrations of trace metals, analyzed after all five steps, were found to be (mg kg(-1)) for Mn: 656, Fe: 26734, Ni: 32.3, Zn: 72.8, Pb: 13.4 and Cu: 27.0. Most of the elements were found in acid soluble residue, characterizing stable compounds in sediments. Non-residual fractions of trace metals (sum of the first four fractions) were analyzed because they are more bioavailable than the residual amount. Correlation analysis and two multivariate analysis methods (principal component and cluster analy...sis) were used to understand and visualize the associations between the non-residual fractions of trace metals and certain forms, more or less crystalline of Fe- and Mn-oxides within the analyzed sediments, since Fe- and Mn-oxides play an important role in trace metal sorption within aquatic systems, especially within the Danube alluvium where the fluctuations of groundwater are very frequent and the level of groundwater could come close to surface. (c) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords:alluvial sediments / sequential extraction procedure / trace metals association / Fe- and Mn-oxides / multivariate analysis methods
Source:Environment International, 2005, 31, 5, 661-669
- Pergamon-Elsevier Science Ltd, Oxford