Assessment of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory and analgesic pharmaceuticals in seawaters of North of Portugal: Occurrence and environmental risk
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Santos, Lucia H. M. L. M.
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The occurrence of seven pharmaceuticals and two metabolites belonging to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and analgesics therapeutic classes was studied in seawaters. A total of 101 samples covering fourteen beaches and five cities were evaluated in order to assess the spatial distribution of pharmaceuticals among north Portuguese coast. Seawaters were selected in order to embrace different bathing water quality (excellent, good and sufficient). Acetaminophen, ketoprofen and the metabolite hydroxyibuprofen were detected in all the seawater samples at maximum concentrations of 584, 89.7 and 287 ng L-1, respectively. Carboxyibuprofen had the highest seawater concentration (1227 ng L-1). The temporal distribution of the selected pharmaceuticals during the bathing season showed that, in general, higher concentrations were detected in August and September. The environmental risk posed by the pharmaceuticals detected in seawaters towards different trophic levels (fish, daphnids and alga...e) was also assessed. Only diclofenac showed hazard quotients above one for fish, representing a potential risk for aquatic organisms. These results were observed in seawaters classified as excellent bathing water. Additional data is needed in order to support the identification and prioritization of risks posed by pharmaceuticals in marine environment.
Keywords:Seawater / North of Portugal / Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs / Analgesics / UHPLC-MS/MS / Environmental risk assessment
Source:Science of the Total Environment, 2015, 508, 240-250
- Elsevier Science Bv, Amsterdam
- national funds through FCT - Foundation for Science and Technology [PEst-C/EQB/LA0006/2013, PEst-C/MAR/LA0015/2013]
- European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) through the COMPETE - Operational Competitiveness Programme
- Supplementary material: http://cherry.chem.bg.ac.rs/handle/123456789/3340