Millipedes vs. pathogens: Defensive secretions of some julids (Diplopoda: Julida) as potential antimicrobial agents
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Vujisić, Ljubodrag V.
Makarov, Slobodan E.
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In the light of growing interest in discovering new sources of natural antimicrobial agents, we extracted and tested the efficiency of julid defensive secretions in comparison with commercially used antibiotic and antimycotics. This work involved chemical characterization of the defensive secretions of Cylindroiulus boleti (C. L. Koch, 1847), Megaphyllum bosniense (Verhoeff, 1897) and M.unilineatum (C. L. Koch, 1838), as well as in vitro evaluation of their antimicrobial activity against 11 bacteria, one yeast and eight filamentous fungi. Compounds of the analysed defensive secretions included p-benzoquinones, alkyl esters of fatty acids and ketones. Ketones were recorded for the first time in the order Julida, and they were detected in secretions of both Megaphyllum species. All three analysed defensive secretions showed antibacterial and antifungal potential against all of the tested pathogens. Staphylococcus aureus proved to be the most sensitive bacterial strain to all analysed sec...retions. Also, defensive secretion of M.unilineatum showed significant antibacterial potential against Bacillus subtilis. The most resistant bacterial strains in this study were Escherichia coli, Erwinia persicina and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato. Analysed defensive secretions achieved the strongest antifungal activity against Aspergillus parasiticus (secretions of all three millipede species), Penicillium griseofulvum (secretions of C.boleti and M.bosniense) and Cladosporium oxysporum (secretion of M.unilineatum). The most resistant mycromycetes were A.niger (to all tested defensive secretions), A.flavus (to secretion of M.unilineatum) and P.lanosum (to secretions of C.boleti and M.bosniense). Our results showed a generally lower level of activity compared to antibiotic and a significantly higher level compared to antimycotics. The results of this study elucidate and open opportunities for further research in the field of millipede chemical ecology.
Keywords:antibacterial and antifungal activity / diplopods / gas chromatography-mass spectrometry / microdilution / pathogens / quinones
Source:Journal of Applied Entomology, 2018, 142, 8, 775-791
- Wiley, Hoboken
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- Supplementary material: http://cherry.chem.bg.ac.rs/handle/123456789/3238