Chemical Ecology of Cave-Dwelling Millipedes: Defensive Secretions of the Typhloiulini (Diplopoda, Julida, Julidae)
AuthorsMakarov, Slobodan E.
Vujisić, Ljubodrag V.
Antić, Dragan Ž.
Mitić, Bojan M.
Anđelković, Boban D.
Lucić, Sofija Pavković
Tomić, Vladimir T.
Article (Published version)
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Cave animals live under highly constant ecological conditions and in permanent darkness, and many evolutionary adaptations of cave-dwellers have been triggered by their specific environment. A similar "cave effect" leading to pronounced chemical interactions under such conditions may be assumed, but the chemoecology of troglobionts is mostly unknown. We investigated the defensive chemistry of a largely cave-dwelling julid group, the controversial tribe "Typhloiulini", and we included some cave-dwelling and some endogean representatives. While chemical defense in juliform diplopods is known to be highly uniform, and mainly based on methyl- and methoxy-substituted benzoquinones, the defensive secretions of typhloiulines contained ethyl-benzoquinones and related compounds. Interestingly, ethyl-benzoquinones were found in some, but not all cave-dwelling typhloiulines, and some non-cave dwellers also contained these compounds. On the other hand, ethyl-benzoquinones were not detected in trog...lobiont nor in endogean typhloiuline outgroups. In order to explain the taxonomic pattern of ethyl-benzoquinone occurrence, and to unravel whether a cave-effect triggered ethyl-benzoquinone evolution, we classed the "Typhloiulini" investigated here within a phylogenetic framework of julid taxa, and traced the evolutionary history of ethyl-benzoquinones in typhloiulines in relation to cave-dwelling. The results indicated a cave-independent evolution of ethyl-substituted benzoquinones, indicating the absence of a "cave effect" on the secretions of troglobiont Typhloiulini. Ethyl-benzoquinones probably evolved early in an epi- or endogean ancestor of a clade including several, but not all Typhloiulus (basically comprising a taxonomic entity known as "Typhloiulus sensu stricto") and Serboiulus. Ethyl-benzoquinones are proposed as novel and valuable chemical characters for julid systematics.
Keywords:Typhloiulini / Typhloiulus / Serboiulus / Lamellotyphlus / 2-ethyl-1,4-benzoquinone / quinone millipedes / chemical defense / chemosystematics
Source:Journal of Chemical Ecology, 2017, 43, 4, 317-326
- Springer, Dordrecht
- Ontogenetic characterization of phylogenetic biodiversity (RS-173038)
- Natural products of wild, cultivated and edible plants: structure and bioactivity determination (RS-172053)
- University of Graz
- DOC fellowship of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, at the Institute of Zoology, University of Graz 
- Supplementary material: http://cherry.chem.bg.ac.rs/handle/123456789/3085