Nitric Oxide and its Role in Cardiovascular Diseases
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Nitric oxide synthases (NOS) are the enzymes responsible for nitric oxide (NO) generation. NO is a free radical which reacts with various molecules to cause multiple biological effects. It is clear that the generation and actions of NO under physiological and pathophysiological conditions are exquisitely regulated and extend to almost every cell type and function within the circulation. While the molecule mediates many physiological functions, an excessive presence of NO is toxic to cells. The enzyme NOS, constitutively or inductively, catalyses the production of NO in several biological systems. NO is derived not only from NOS isoforms but also from NOS-independent sources. In mammals, to date, three distinct NOS isoforms have been identified: neuronal NOS (nNOS), inducible NOS (iNOS), and endothelial NOS (eNOS). The molecular structure, enzymology and pharmacology of these enzymes have been well defined, and reveal critical roles for the NOS system in a variety of important physiolog...ical processes. This review focuses on recent advances in the understanding of the interactions between NOS enzymes and pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and the role of NO agonists as potential therapeutic agents in treatment of CVD.
Keywords:nitric oxide / nitric oxide synthase / endothelial dysfunction / chronic heart failure
Source:The Open Nitric Oxide Journal, 2011, 3, 1, 65-71
- Bentham Open
- Hormonal regulation of expression and activity of the nitric oxide synthase and sodium-potassium pump in experimental models of insulin resistance, diabetes and cardiovascular disorders (RS-173033)
- DAAD Grant founded by Deutscher Akademischer Austauschdienst- No. A/11/04833 ( to E.R. I and H. D).
- The Open Nitric oxide Journal has been discontinued.