DNA Intercalating Near-Infrared Luminescent Lanthanide Complexes Containing Dipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c]phenazine (dppz) Ligands: Synthesis, Crystal Structures, Stability, Luminescence Properties and CT-DNA Interaction
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In order to create near-infrared (NIR) luminescent lanthanide complexes suitable for DNA-interaction, novel lanthanide dppz complexes with general formula [Ln(NO3)3(dppz)2] (Ln = Nd3+, Er3+ and Yb3+; dppz = dipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c]phenazine) were synthesized, characterized and their luminescence properties were investigated. In addition, analogous compounds with other lanthanide ions (Ln = Ce3+, Pr3+, Sm3+, Eu3+, Tb3+, Dy3+, Ho3+, Tm3+, Lu3+) were prepared. All complexes were characterized by IR spectroscopy and elemental analysis. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis of the complexes (Ln = La3+, Ce3+, Pr3+, Nd3+, Eu3+, Er3+, Yb3+, Lu3+) showed that the lanthanide's first coordination sphere can be described as a bicapped dodecahedron, made up of two bidentate dppz ligands and three bidentate-coordinating nitrate anions. Efficient energy transfer was observed from the dppz ligand to the lanthanide ion (Nd3+, Er3+ and Yb3+), while relatively high luminescence lifetimes were detected... for these complexes. In their excitation spectra, the maximum of the strong broad band is located at around 385 nm and this wavelength was further used for excitation of the chosen complexes. In their emission spectra, the following characteristic NIR emission peaks were observed: for a) Nd3+: 4F3/2 → 4I9/2 (870.8 nm), 4F3/2 → 4I11/2 (1052.7 nm) and 4F3/2 → 4I13/2 (1334.5 nm); b) Er3+: 4I13/2 → 4I15/2 (1529.0 nm) c) Yb3+: 2F5/2 → 2F7/2 (977.6 nm). While its low triplet energy level is ideally suited for efficient sensitization of Nd3+ and Er3+, the dppz ligand is considered not favorable as a sensitizer for most of the visible emitting lanthanide ions, due to its low-lying triplet level, which is too low for the accepting levels of most visible emitting lanthanides. Furthermore, the DNA intercalation ability of the [Nd(NO3)3(dppz)2] complex with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) was confirmed using fluorescence spectroscopy.
Keywords:crystal structures / dipyrido[3,2-a:2′,3′-c]phenazine / lanthanide complexes / NIR luminescence
Source:Molecules, 2020, 25, 22, 5309-
- Erasmus Mundus Basileus V project, the Fonds Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek, grant numbers AUGE/11/029, AUGE/09/024 and 01N03217.
- Bijzonder Onderzoeksfonds UGent, grant number BOF15/PDO/091.